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In wet conditions, treaded tires are used to dissipate the water buildup between the track and the tire surfaces in order to increase grip.
Stagger: Right rear tire is larger in diameter than left rear tire, causing the race car to naturally want to turn left, to improve turning ability on ovals.
Sticker tires: Slang term for new tires, derived from the manufacturer sticker placed on each new tire. The restraints are made of FIA-approved Zylon.
Telemetry: A radio device that relays information such as engine, tire, steering and throttle performance from the car on track to engineers on pit lane.
The team can monitor both car and driver activity to ensure the car is performing properly. Also enhances driver safety by allowing the team to notice any developing mechanical problem.
As the driver steers through a turn, the front wheels want to continue straight. Tire compound: A formula based on rubber polymers, oils, carbon blacks and curatives used to create a tire.
The varying lengths and banking of racetracks require different compounds. He also explains how important the assistant starters are to the race and safety of the riders.
Stay up-to-date with the best from America's Best Racing! Aces Frankie Lovato Jr. Acey-deucy Uneven stirrups, popularized by Hall of Fame jockey Eddie Arcaro, who rode with his left inside iron lower than his right to achieve better balance on turns.
Across the board A bet on a horse to win, place and show. It is generally measured in the morning, and then published to inform the public and professionals.
Going stick An apparatus that is used to measure the softness of the ground, that is generally taken on the morning of the races.
Group The most important races are categorised into three groups: Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3. The former is the highest level of competition, with the least amount of them 36 in France.
They offer the best prize money on the flat and over jumps. For a race to become a Group 1, the first three horses past the post need to obtain a minimum rating.
If, over several years, this level is not obtained, the European Pattern Committee, the society in charge of regulating these races, can downgrade the race.
Inversely, they can also upgrade races. There is also a fourth category known as Listed races, which are a stepping-stone to group races, and come under the same ratings rule.
Hack canter Often in long races, the horses may go much slower often called a hack canter before then sprinting at the finish.
Handicap A race where the runners each carry a weight relative to their rating to equalise their chances. The best horses carry the most weight, and vice versa.
Handicapper Someone who decides on the rating of each horse following each of its races. This is described in kilos and raised depending on the performances of each horse.
Handicap reference This is the number of kilos in a handicap that one needs to add to the theoretical rating of all the runners to obtain the weight that each horse must carry.
Horse An entire aged five years old or upwards aside from the generic meaning. Jockey A professional rider with a licence to ride in races, in contrast to an amateur or gentleman rider.
Length The measurement used to determine the distance between horses at the winning post. One length corresponds to the length of a horse.
It is estimated that two pounds, the equivalent of 1kg, corresponds to one length at the finish. Maiden A horse, male or female, that has never won a race.
This can also mean a race for horses that have not yet won. Make a mistake To peck on landing or not clear a jump properly. Meeting A number of race days held at a particular racecourse that are held over a certain period of time, often consecutively.
Example: The August Meeting at Deauville. In English, the word meeting would also mean a race meeting taking place on just one day.
Miler A racehorse that performs at his best over distances from 1,m to 1,m. Non-runner This is a horse that is down as a runner on the official programme, but following the decision of the trainer, or sometimes a vet, or even the starter see this word , it then does not take part in the race.
Early apex. Ideal Line. Late apex. Crash Media Group. March Retrieved 18 March USA Today. May 21, Ultimate Hot Rod Dictionary: A-Bombs to Zoomies.
MotorBooks International. Photos by John B. Popular Science. Times Mirror Magazines. Retrieved 14 December In essence, the more the tyre moves about on the track surface ie slides , the more likely graining is.
A bed of gravel on the outside of corners designed with the aim of bringing cars that fall off the circuit to a halt.
The amount of traction a car has at any given point, affecting how easy it is for the driver to keep control through corners. A term used to describe a car's responsiveness to driver input and its ability to negotiate corners effectively.
A car that handles well will typically be well-balanced and not understeer or oversteer to any great degree. Short for Head and Neck Support Device, a mandatory safety device that fits over the driver's shoulders and connects to the back of the helmet to prevent excessive head and neck movement in the event of an accident.
The removable energy-absorbing foam that surrounds the driver's helmet in the cockpit. Three different grades of foam are used, depending on the ambient temperature.
A term used to describe the process by which a tyre is heated through use and then cooled down. This has the effect of slightly changing the properties of the compound and can improve durability.
A lap done on arrival at a circuit, testing functions such as throttle, brakes and steering before heading back to the pits without crossing the finish line.
When a driver moves off his grid position before the five red lights have been switched off to signal the start. Sensors detect premature movement and a jump start earns a driver a penalty.
A synthetic fibre that is combined with epoxy resin to create a strong, lightweight composite used in F1 car construction.
A style of braking made popular in the s following the arrival of hand clutches so that drivers could keep their right foot on the throttle and dedicate their left to braking.
The term used to describe a driver braking sharply and 'locking' one or more tyres whilst the others continue rotating. Tyre smoke and flat spots are common side effects.
The sign on a stick held in front of the car during a pit stop to inform the driver to apply the brakes and then to engage first gear prior to the car being lowered from its jacks.
The small pieces of tyre rubber that accumulate at the side of the track off the racing line. Typically these are very slippery when driven on.
A course official who oversees the safe running of the race. The single-piece tub in which the cockpit is located, with the engine fixed behind it and the front suspension on either side at the front.
An artificial, fire-resistant fibre used to make drivers' race overalls, underwear, gloves and boots. The second - and usually softer - of the two tyre compounds nominated by the official tyre supplier for use at each Grand Prix.
Not expected in theory to be as well suited as the prime tyre to that particular circuit's characteristics, but may provide certain advantages in terms of pace or durability.
A term used to describe a driver braking either too late or too softly and subsequently overrunning a corner.
A common mistake made during overtaking moves. When a car's rear end doesn't want to go around a corner and tries to overtake the front end as the driver turns in towards the apex.
This often requires opposite-lock to correct, whereby the driver turns the front wheels into the skid. Levers on either side of the back of a steering wheel with which a driver changes up and down the gearbox.
An enclosed area behind the pits in which the teams keep their transporters and motor homes. There is no admission to the public. A fenced-off area into which cars are driven after qualifying and the race, where no team members are allowed to touch them except under the strict supervision of race stewards.
A board held out on the pit wall to inform a driver of his race position, the time interval to the car ahead or the one behind, plus the number of laps of the race remaining.
Where the team owner, managers and engineers spend the race, usually under an awning to keep sun and rain off their monitors. A hard wooden strip also known as a skid block that is fitted front-to-back down the middle of the underside of all cars to check that they are not being run too close to the track surface, something that is apparent if the wood is excessively worn.
Blinkers are designed to help horses concentrate in races. A term used to describe the part of the racing industry which deals with racehorse breeding, be it at the sales, stud farms or elsewhere.
Most of the horses have been purchased as yearlings, and are then broken in and ridden in preparation for them galloping at the sale.
Also known as a National Hunt Flat race, and usually run over two miles without any obstacles. Commonly used as a way to give horses race experience before tackling hurdles and fences.
A form of headgear which consists of pieces of sheepskin placed on either side of the bridle and performs a similar job as blinkers in helping the horse to concentrate.
A jockey who takes weight off a horse to compensate for their relative inexperience as a rider. Their claim is reduced the more winners they have.
Grade 1 contests confined to three-year-olds only in Britain. There are five Classics in Britain: 2, Guineas, 1, Guineas, Oaks, Derby, St Leger.
An uncastrated male horse aged four years old or younger. A colt older than four is referred to as an entire or horse if still racing or stallion if at stud.
When the raceday judge cannot split two or more horses at the finishing-line, the prize is split between the horses and a dead-heat is called. A formal notification from a trainer that notifies the racing authorities they intend to run a horse in a certain race.
Horses are commonly declared at either the hour or hour stage prior to a race. The type of obstacle jumped during chase races.
There are different types of fence, including an open-ditch, the water jump and a plain fence. The form may also include some letters, for example F denoting a fall.
An imperial unit of distance measurement in horseracing. A furlong is an eighth of a mile or a little more than metres. BLINKERS- Device to limit a horse's vision to prevent him from swerving from objects or other horses on either side of him.
BLISTER- Counter-irritant to ease pain or to treat an ailment. BLOOD WORMS- Parasites that get into the blood stream.
BLOWOUT- A short, final workout, usually a day or two before a race, designed to sharpen a horse's speed. BOARD- Totalisator board on which odds, betting pools and other information is displayed.
BOBBLE- A bad step away from the starting gate, usually caused by the track breaking away from under a horse's hoof and causing him to duck his head or nearly go to his knees.
BOG SPAVIN- Puffy swelling on the inside and slightly in front of the back, usually caused by overwork or strain. BOLT- Sudden veering from a straight course.
BOTTOM- Stamina in a horse. Also, sub-surface of racing strip. BOTTOM LINE- Thoroughbred's breeding on female side.
The bottom half of an extended pedigree diagram. BOWED TENDON a BOW - Rupture of the sheath enclosing the tendon from the knee to the fetlock joint.
BREAK A horse - To accustom a young horse to racing equipment and methods, and to carry a rider. BREAKAGE- In pari-mutuel payoffs which are rounded out to a nickel or dime, those pennies that are left over.
Breakage is generally split between the track and state and, in some cases, breeding or other funds, in varying proportions. BREAKDOWN- When a horse suffered an injury; lameness.
BREAK MAIDEN- Horse or rider winning first race of career. BREATHER- Restraining or easing off on a horse for a short distance in a race to permit him to conserve or renew his strength.
BRED- A horse is bred at the place of his birth. Also, the mating of horses. BREEDER- Owner of dam at time foal is dropped. BREEDING FUND- A fund set up by many states to provide bonus prizes for state- breds.
BREEZE- Working a horse at a moderate speed; less effort than handily. BRIDGE-JUMPER- Someone who makes large show bets on short-priced favorites.
BROODMARE- Female Thoroughbred used for breeding. BROWN- Sometimes difficult to separate from black or dark bay.
This color can usually be distinguished by noting finer tan or brown hairs on the muzzles or flanks. BUCKED SHINS- Inflammation of front of cannon bone to which young horses are particularly susceptible.
BUG- Apprentice allowance. Apprentice rider. BULLET WORK - The best time for the distance on the work tab for a given day at a track. BULL RING- Small racetrack; usually less than one mile.
CALL the - Running position of horses in a race at various points. CALLER- One who calls the running positions of horses in a race.
CAPPED HOCK- Injury to hock caused by kicking or rubbing. CAST- A horse is a cast when he lies down in the stall in such a way that he is too close to the wall, and there is a danger that he may not be able to get up by himself without injury.
CHART- A statistical "picture" of a race from which past performances are compiled , which shows the position and margin of each horse at designated points of call depending on distance of the race , age, weight carried, owner, trainer, purse, conditions, pay-off prices, odds, time and other data.
CHECKED- A horse pulled up by his jockey for an instant because he is cut off or in tight quarters. CHESTNUT- Varies from light, washy yellow to dark liver color, between which comes red, gold and liver shades.
A chestnut never has black points, mane or tail. CHUTE- Extension of backstretch or homestretch to permit straightaway run from start.
CLAIMING- Buying a horse out of race for entered price. CLAIMING BOX- Box in which claims are deposited before the race. CLAIMING RACE- Race in which horses are entered subject to claim for a specified price.
CLASSIC- Race of traditional importance. In the U. CLERK OF SCALES- An official whose chief duty is to weigh the riders before and after a race to be sure proper weight is carried.
CLIMBING- A fault in a horse's stride in which, instead of reaching out, his action is abnormally high. CLOCKER- One who times workouts and races.
CLOSER- A horse who runs best in the latter part of the race, coming from off the pace. CLUBHOUSE TURN- Generally, the turn closest to the clubhouse.
COLORS- Racing silks-jacket and cap-worn by riders to denote the owner s of horse. COLT- Male horse under 5 years of age. COMPANY- Class of horses in a race.
Members of the field. CONDITION BOOK- Book issued by racing secretary which sets forth conditions of races to be run.
CONDITION RACE- An event with conditions limiting it to a certain class of horse. Such as: Fillies, 3-year-olds, non-winners of two races other than maiden or claiming, etc.
CONTRACT RIDER- Jockey under contract to a stable. COOLING OUT- Restoring a horse, usually by walking, to normal temperature after becoming overheated in a race or workout.
COUGH- Broadly, a cold. More prevalent in spring among young Thoroughbreds. COUPLED- Two or more horses running as an entry in a single betting unit.
CRIBBER A WIND SUCKER - A horse who clings to objects with his teeth and sucks air into his stomach. CUP- Trophy awarded to owners of winners.CHECKED- A horse pulled up by his jockey for an instant because he is cut off or in tight quarters. Back Pedaling Most commonly used in drag racing, the magical art of a driver easing out of the throttle to regain traction and avoid or stop tire shake. HUNG- Horse Alchemy 2 LГ¶sung, but holding position. CNYMS Central New York Mini-Sprints.