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Desert Operation Build-up and Commencement Of Operation Desert Storm VideoDesert Storm - The Air War, Day 1 - Time-Lapse
Meadows , had two assignments: to obtain information about the hostages and the embassy grounds [Note 3] and to transport the rescue team from Desert Two to the embassy grounds in pre-staged vehicles.
The ground forces consisted of 93 Delta soldiers to assault the embassy and a man special forces assault team from Detachment "A" Berlin Brigade to assault the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where three further hostages were being held.
A third group of 12 Rangers were to act as the roadblock team at the Desert One landing area. Rangers were also tasked with taking and holding the Manzariyeh Air Base near Tehran to provide the springboard for escape from Iran.
In addition, the CIA had prepared an in-country team of 15 Iranian and American Persian -speakers, most of whom would act as truck drivers.
They would be refuelled by Air Force KC tankers en route. Desert One would be secured by a protection force and once secured, a refueling area would be established for the helicopters with approximately 6, US gallons 22, L of jet fuel being made available from collapsible fuel bladders carried in the Cs.
Because it would be close to morning, the helicopters and ground forces would hide during the day at Desert Two.
The rescue operation would take place the second night. This assault team would assault the embassy and Foreign Affairs building, eliminate the guards, and rescue the hostages, with air support from Air Force AC gunships flying from Desert One.
The hostages and rescue team would then rendezvous with the helicopters which had flown from Desert Two to the nearby Amjadieh Stadium where the rescue teams and the freed hostages would board the helicopters.
With the Rangers holding the airport, the helicopters would bring everyone from the stadium to the Manzariyeh airbase, where the Cs would fly everyone back to an airbase in Egypt.
The eight helicopters would be destroyed before departure. For this operation, the aircraft bore special invasion stripe identification on their right wings.
This was necessary to distinguish support aircraft from Iranian F and F-4 aircraft purchased by from the US in the time of the Shah.
Only the delivery of the soldiers, equipment and fuel by the C aircraft went according to plan. The landing was made under blacked-out conditions using the improvised infrared landing light system installed by Carney on the airstrip, visible only through night vision goggles.
The heavily loaded Dragon 1 required four passes to determine that there were no obstructions on the airstrip [Note 4] and to align with the runway.
The second and third MCs landed using both runways and discharged the remainder of the Delta soldiers, after which Dragon 1 and 2 took off at to make room for the three ECs and the eight RHDs.
Dragon 1 and 2 were to return to base to allow the crews to prepare for the second-night operations. Soon after the first crews landed and began securing Desert One , a civilian Iranian bus with a driver and 43 passengers was stopped while traveling on the road, which now served as the runway for the aircraft.
The bus was forced to halt by the Rangers and the passengers were detained aboard Republic 3. The truck's passenger was killed, but the driver managed to escape in an accompanying pickup truck.
As the tanker truck was thought to be engaged in clandestine smuggling, the driver was not considered to pose a security threat to the mission.
While en route, RHDs Bluebeard 6 made an emergency landing in the desert, when a sensor indicated a cracked rotor blade. Its crew was picked up by Bluebeard 8.
The remaining helicopters ran into an unexpected weather phenomenon known as a haboob  an enormous, nearly opaque cloud of fine dust.
Bluebeard 5 flew into the haboob, but abandoned the mission and returned to the Nimitz when electrical problems disabled flight instruments and flying without visual references proved impossible.
The remaining six helicopters reached Desert One , 50 to 90 minutes behind schedule. Bluebeard 2 arrived last at Desert One at with a malfunctioning secondary hydraulic system, leaving only one hydraulic system to control the aircraft.
With only five fully serviceable helicopters now remaining to transport the men and equipment to Desert Two minimum of six aircraft was the planned mission's abort threshold , the various commanders reached a stalemate.
Senior helicopter pilot Seiffert refused to use unsafe Bluebeard 2 on the mission, while Beckwith field commander for ground forces refused to consider reducing his trained rescue team's size.
Kyle the field aviation commander , therefore, recommended to Vaught that the mission be aborted. The recommendation was passed on by satellite radio up to the President.
After two and a half hours on the ground, the presidential abort confirmation was received. Fuel consumption calculations showed that the extra 90 minutes idling on the ground waiting for the abort confirmation order had made fuel critical for one of the ECs.
When it became clear that only six helicopters would arrive at Desert One , Kyle had authorized the ECs to transfer 1, US gallons 3, L from the bladders to their own main fuel tanks, but Republic 4 had already expended all of its bladder fuel refueling three of the helicopters and had none to transfer.
To make it to the air tanker refueling track without running out of fuel, it had to leave immediately and was already loaded with part of the Delta team.
In addition, RH Bluebeard 4 needed additional fuel, requiring it to be moved to the opposite side of the road. At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure.
Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they would soon be liberated from Saddam.
However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising.
These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed.
Eventually, over , people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians , because of PLO support of Saddam.
Yasser Arafat didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas ' authority formally apologized in There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government.
In their co-written book, A World Transformed , Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it.
I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country.
We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home. And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties.
I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the conflict, for the Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.
And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam [Hussein] worth? And the answer is, not that damned many.
So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.
Kuwaiti democracy advocates had been calling for restoration of Parliament that the Emir had suspended in Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance.
This later became known as checkbook diplomacy. In addition, medical teams were deployed aboard a US hospital ship , and a naval clearance diving team took part in de-mining Kuwait's port facilities following the end of combat operations.
Australian forces experienced a number of incidents in the first number of weeks of the Desert Storm Campaign including the detection of significant air threats from Iraq as a part of the outer perimeter of Battle Force Zulu; the detection of free sea floating mines and assistance to the aircraft carrier USS Midway.
The Australians played a significant role in enforcing the sanctions put in place against Iraq following Kuwait's invasion.
Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF Hornet and CH Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war.
When the air war began, the CFs were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets.
This was the first time since the Korean War that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations.
The only CF Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.
The second largest European contingent was from France, which committed 18, troops. France also deployed several combat aircraft and naval units.
The United Kingdom committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations.
Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles.
Several SAS squadrons were deployed. A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS round fired over 4, metres 2.
Over 1, Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages.
Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1, sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control.
This ultimately led to civilian casualties. In one noted incident, two USAF stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of Iraqi civilians in the shelter.
Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2, civilians died during the air campaign.
A Harvard University study predicted tens of thousands of additional Iraqi civilian deaths by the end of due to the "public health catastrophe" caused by the destruction of the country's electrical generating capacity.
The US government refused to release its own study of the effects of the Iraqi public health crisis. An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3, from bombing, and some , from the war's other effects.
A United Nations report in March described the effect on Iraq of the US-led bombing campaign as "near apocalyptic," bringing back Iraq to the "pre-industrial age.
Some estimate that Iraq sustained between 20, and 35, fatalities. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20, and 26, Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75, others were wounded.
According to Kanan Makiya , "For the Iraqi people, the cost of enforcing the will of the United Nations has been grotesque.
Fleeing soldiers were bombed with a neat device known as a 'fuel-air explosive. The US Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered battle-related deaths 35 to friendly fire  , with one pilot listed as MIA his remains were found and identified in August A further Americans died in non-combat accidents.
In all, coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, of whom were American, out of coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire.
The number of coalition wounded in combat was , including Americans. This number was much lower than expected.
Among the American dead were three female soldiers. While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units.
Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness.
Common symptoms reported are chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and gastrointestinal disorder. Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects.
Some children born after the war to Gulf War veterans had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war.
Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances.
This publication, called the Riegle Report , summarized testimony this committee had received establishing that the US had in the s supplied Saddam Hussein with chemical and biological warfare technology, that Hussein had used such chemical weapons against Iran and his own native Kurds, and possibly against US soldiers as well, plausibly contributing to the Gulf War Syndrome.
Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, including claims of pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects.
Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of major health issues in veterans and in surrounding civilian populations, including in birth defects and child cancer rates.
Scientific opinion on the risk is mixed. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper.
Also, the uranium that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs.
On the night of 26—27 February , some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1, vehicles. Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable.
This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack.
Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes. By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities.
Kuwait was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing. Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths.
This was the " bulldozer assault", wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division Mechanized were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the heavily fortified "Saddam Hussein Line".
After some deliberation, they opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers.
Not a single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
Anthony] Moreno said. A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than , Palestinians fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces,  in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait.
The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. In the 23 June edition of The Washington Post , reporter Bart Gellman wrote: "Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of Iraq Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations 92 percent of installed capacity destroyed , refineries 80 percent of production capacity , petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers including telephone networks , bridges more than , roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies.
During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse.
Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Only one, Chris Ryan , evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured.
Since Saudi Arabia houses Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence. The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks ,  the Khobar Towers bombing , and the date chosen for the US embassy bombings 7 August , which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia.
In a December interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai , bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world.
On 6 August , after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the council's sanctions committee.
From until , the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition.
During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis.
Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Formerly covering an area of around 3, square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were nearly emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and uprisings.
The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the s and s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons.
Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics.
The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces.
The fires started in January and February , and the last one was extinguished by November. The resulting fires burned uncontrollably because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews.
Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out.
Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states.
The Overseas Development Institute ODI undertook a study in to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response.
A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism.
International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans.
The war was heavily televised. For the first time, people all over the world watched live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers.
Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy. But, moments later, Shepard returned as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.
Rather, after the report was finished, announced unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia.
Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. Still, it was CNN whose coverage gained the most popularity and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN International.
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Wikimedia Commons. Part of Iraqi no-fly zones. Date 16—19 December President George H. Bush immediately condemned the invasion, as did the governments of Britain and the Soviet Union.
On November 29, , the U. Some of this payment was not monetary but service-related such as food and transport while United States troops were based in Saudi Arabia.
Since United States forces represented almost three-quarters of the troops fighting the conflict, the country absorbed a lot of the initial costs.
While retreating from Kuwait, the Iraqi armed forces enacted what is known as a "scorched earth: policy", destroying anything of economic value.
The Iraq army subsequently set oil wells on fire in January and February of , and some of these fires were not extinguished until November of the same year.
Casualties from both sides were vastly different, as the United States held a distinct advantage with their superior air power and technology.
The United States and other Coalition troops sustained troop deaths and injuries on the battlefield.